Mihrabs are a relevant part of Islamic culture and mosques . Since they are used to indicate the direction for prayer, they serve as an important focal point in the mosque . They are usually decorated with ornamental detail that can be geometric designs, linear patterns, or calligraphy.
Nave, central and principal part of a Christian church , extending from the entrance (the narthex) to the transepts (transverse aisle crossing the nave in front of the sanctuary in a cruciform church ) or, in the absence of transepts, to the chancel ( area around the altar).
Two of these changes were the new capital at Byzantium and the new Christian character of the empire (Constantine legalized Christianity and eventually converted himself). These changes eventually created a distinct culture which would characterize the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476.
The Arabic language, and subsequently the art of calligraphy, is held in great esteem by Muslims because Arabic was the language in which the Qu’ran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Another essential element of a mosque’s architecture is a mihrab —a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, towards which all Muslims pray. No matter where a mosque is , its mihrab indicates the direction of Mecca (or as near that direction as science and geography were able to place it).
Hundreds of millions of Muslims around the world are bound to orient their daily prayers toward the ancient Kaaba, and mosques everywhere are built to face the black-shrouded cubic building, or have indicators of its direction.
Gallery. A balcony or mezzanine overlooking the main interior space of a building. In a church the gallery is an upper storey directly above the aisle, with arches looking down into the nave. Gothic.
A choir , also sometimes called quire , is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir . It is in the western part of the chancel, between the nave and the sanctuary, which houses the altar and Church tabernacle.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church or the main body of a church between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel. It is the zone of a church accessible by the laity.
Finally, in 476, the Germanic leader Odoacer staged a revolt and deposed the Emperor Romulus Augustulus . From then on, no Roman emperor would ever again rule from a post in Italy, leading many to cite 476 as the year the Western Empire suffered its deathblow.
Rome Divides into Two In 285 AD, Emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman Empire was too big to manage. He divided the Empire into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire . Over the next hundred years or so, Rome would be reunited, split into three parts, and split in two again.
Some main differences between the Eastern and Western Roman empires are that the main language of the Eastern Roman Empire was Greek, while the language of the Western Roman Empire was Latin, and that the Eastern Roman Empire was more cosmopolitan.
1- Calligraphy is an Islamic art that is supposed to serve, honor, and respect the Qur’an by beautifully capturing its verses in a piece of art. It is in this spirit that the Muslim Ummah has tolerated and even encouraged such practices.
Edward Johnston is regarded as being the father of modern calligraphy. After studying published copies of manuscripts by architect William Harrison Cowlishaw, he was introduced to William Lethaby in 1898, principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts, who advised him to study manuscripts at the British Museum.
Also, Islamic art does not portray figures of animals or people for religious reasons . Instead, calligraphy became an important means of decoration and a highly creative art form. Islamic calligraphy had strong connections to religion, but its use was not restricted to religious texts.